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Narration Change Rules

মনে কর তোমার সহপাঠি আবিদ বলল তার কলমটি হারিয়ে গেছে। তুমি এ কথাটি ২ ভাবে বলতে পার। ১। Habib says, I have lost my pen. 

    ২। Habib says that he has lost his pen 

প্রথম sentence টিতে তুমি আবিদের কথা হুবুহু বলেছ। কিন্তু ২য় sentence টিতে তার কথাটি তোমার নিজের কথায় প্রকাশ করেছ। তাই Narration দুই প্রকার। 

  1. Direct Speech 
  1. Indirect Speech 

Direct speech থেকে indirect speech এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে প্রথমে tense ও person এর পরিবর্তন জানতে হবে। 

You may also like: Narration Exercise with solution

Tense Change:

Direct Speech  Indirect Speech 
Present Simple: 

 

         She said, “its cold.” 

Past Simple: 

 

          She said that It was cold. 

Present continuous: 

 

         She said, “I’m teaching English.” 

Past continuous: 

 

          She said that she was teaching English. 

Present perfect: 

 

         She said, “I’ve been in school since 1999.” 

Past perfect: 

 

          She said that she had been in a school since 1999. 

Present perfect continuous: 

 

         She said, I’ve been teaching in a school for seven years.” 

Past perfect continuous: 

 

          She said that she had been teaching in school for seven years. 

Past simple: 

 

         She said, “I taught in many schools.” 

Past perfect: 

 

          She said that she had taught in many schools. 

Past continuous: 

 

         She said, “I was teaching earlier.” 

Past perfect continuous: 

 

          She said that she had been teaching earlier. 

Past perfect: 

 

         She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.” 

(No change) Past perfect: 

 

          She said that the lesson had already started when he arrived. 

Past perfect continuous: 

 

         She said, “I had already been teaching for five minutes.” 

(No change) Past perfect continuous: 

 

          She said that she had already been teaching for five minutes. 

Modal Auxiliaries এর পরিবর্তনঃ 

Can  Could 
May   Might 
Will  Would 
Shall  would 

NB:  

Could, would, should, might এবং ought to-এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : “I might go to the cinema.” he said  

Indirect : He said he might go to the cinema. 

Reporting speech- টি যদি কোনো universal truth হয় তাহলে reporting verb present/ past যা হোক না কেন reported speech- এর tense এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হবে না। যেমন 

Direct : The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.” 

Indirect : The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun. 

Direct : The teacher said to the students, “Honesty is the best policy.” 

Indirect : The teacher told the students that honesty is the best policy. 

চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বা দৃঢ় অনুমান বোঝানোর ক্ষেত্রে must, had to তে পরিবর্তিত হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : He said, “Every child must respect its parents.” 

Indirect : He said that every child must respect its parents. 

 

Time Change: 

Direct Speech  Indirect Speech 
Ago  Before 
Come   Go  
Here   There  
Hence   Thence  
Hither   Thither  
Now   Then  
Next (day/ month/week/year)  Following (day/ week/ month/year) 
Today   That day  
Thus   So/ In that way 
These (days)   Those(days)  
This (evening/ morning/noon)  That (evening/ morning/noon) 
This day   That day  
Tonight   That night 
Tomorrow   The next/ following day 
Last weekend   The weekend before last  

 

The previous weekend 

Last night  The previous night 
Last month/ year  The previous month/ year 

 

The month/ year before 

Yesterday (morning/ after noon/ evening)  The previous (morning/ after noon/ evening) 
Tomorrow (morning/ evening)  The following (morning/evening) 

NB: যদি reporting verbটি present/ future tense হয় তবে reported speech– এর tense এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : Mimi says, “I have done the sum.” 

Indirect : Mimi says that she has done the sum.” 

Direct : He says, “I am operating a computer.” 

Indirect : He says that he is operating a computer. 

Person Change:

Reported speech  1st (I ,WE)  Reporting verb এর subject কে follow করে। 
Reported speech  2nd (you, your)  Reporting verb এর object কে follow করে। 
Reported speech  3rd (He, She, It)  No change. 

Change of case: 

Nominative  Possessive   Objective 
I  My  Me 
We  Our  Us 
You  You  You 
He  His  Him 
She  her  Her 
They  their  Them 
  •  যখন বক্তা উল্লেখ থাকবে না তখন বক্তা ধরে নিয়ে indirect narration করতে হবে। 

Direct: “I shall go home soon.” 

Indirect: The speaker said to the person spoken to that he would go home soon. 

Statement/ Assertive Sentence 

  • Assertive sentence এর indirect narration এ change করতে নিচের নিয়ম গুলো follow করবে। এছারা আগের নিয়ম ঠিক থাকবে। 

Reporting verb say/said বা tell/told বসে। 

Inverted comma উঠে that বসে। 

Example:  

Direct: He says, “I am happy.” 

Indirect: He says that he was happy. 

Direct: I said to him, “I shall not go.” 

Indirect: I told him that I would not go. 

Question/ Interrogative Sentence Change

  • Indirect Narrationinterrogative Reported speech টি assertive sentence এ পরিনত করতে হবে। 
  • Sayবা tell বা say to এর পরিবর্তে ask, asked বসাতে হবে। 
  • Reported speechযদি(do, does, did, shall, will, am, is, are, was, were, can, may) দিয়ে আরম্ভ হলে inverted comma উঠে if বসে। 

Direct: Father said, “Are you reading now.” 

Indirect: Father asked if he was reading then. 

  • শুরুতেinterrogative pronoun (who, which, what, when, whom, where, whose, why, how দিয়ে আরম্ভ হলে inverted comma উঠে if হবেনা। ঐ pronoun টি অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। 

Direct: Karim said to me, where did you go yesterday. 

Indirect: Karim asked me where I had gone the previous day. 

 

Exercise:

Download Narration Note PDF

 

More Exercise:

Assertive Sentence

  1. The son said to his father, “I am not going to school because today I feel dizzy.
  2. I replied, “Yes, I have finished reading the book.”
  3. The Mayor said to the piper, “We cannot give you so much money.”
  4. The student said, “Yes, sir, I have completed my English lesson.”
  5. The man said to the manager, “I want to open a bank account in your bank.”
  6. The teacher said to the student, “You can’t learn your lessons well if you don’t attend the classes.”
  7. The boy said to the teacher, “I am sorry, sir, I’ll attend my classes regularly in future.”
  8. The boy said to the teacher, “Sir, I shall be much obliged if you kindly lend me the book you praised highly in the classroom yesterday.”
  9. The teacher said to Jamil, “You’re welcome to any of my books that you like.”
  10. The receptionist said. “It will be suitable for me.”
  11. I said to Rezia, “I’ve not seen her for a long time.”
  12. The old man said to the girl, “I have been starving for three days.”
  13. Rubi said, “Today is a suitable day for reading.”
  14. The aunt said, “Laila, you’re very tired after your long walk.”
  15. Mother said to Nipa, “I have not yet finished cooking. You have to wait for some time.”
  16. My father looked at me angrily and said to me, ‘You must go to school without any excuse?”
  17. He said, “I went to my friend’s house to borrow an essential book but he was not at home.”
  18. The girl said, “I don’t tell my mother’s name to anybody whom I don’t know.”
  19. Sharnim said to Suman, “I went to your house yesterday, but I did not find you.”
  20. My mother said to me, “Your progress in studies is very slow.”
  21. The woman said, “My children are hungry but there is no food in my house.”
  22. Kabir said to Prabir, “I expected you to attend my birthday ceremony yesterday but your absence hurt me much.”
  23. Mother said, “It is not durable and it will break down in a month.”

Interrogative Sentence

  1. The sons said to his father, “How will we find it?”
  2. Father said to his son, “Why are you making late?”
  3. “Will you return the book to me?” he said to me.
  4. “Have you killed the rats?” the Mayor said to the piper.
  5. “Rafin, have you done your English lesson today?” asked the teacher.
  6. The teacher said to Ratan, “Where is the problem?”, Rakib said to Raju, “How are you today?”
  7. The man said to the manager “Can you tell me the process of opening a bank account?
  8. My friend said to me, “Why are you sitting alone in your room at this hour?”
  9. The tourist said to the receptionist, “Have you any room vacant?”
  10. “Do you want a single or double room?” the receptionist said to the tourist.
  11. Father said to his son, “Don’t you think that honesty is the best policy?”
  12. Mrs. Amin said to Anwar; “Do you know what fables are?”
  13. He said to me, “What is the time by your watch?”

Imperative Sentence:

  1. “My sons, Listen to me,” the old man said.
  2. Father said to his son, “Go to school now.”
  3. The piper said to the Mayor, ‘”Give me the promised money.
  4. The teacher said to the student, “Let’s try to solve the problem.
  5. “Don’t worry for me,” The girl said to her mother.
  6. Sakila said to Shila, “Let’s go for a walk in the open field.”
  7. Father said to his son, “Learn to be honest from your boyhood.”
  8. The teacher said to the student, “Be attentive and listen to my lecture.”
  9. Shaila said to Neela, “Let’s finish reading the last part of this book.”
  10. The teacher said to the student, “Leave the room and do not return again today.”
  11. “Give me a few grains of com,” said the Grasshopper to the Ant.
  12. The headmaster said to the student, “Remember, punctuality is essential in every walk of life.”
  13. Bashir said to Ali; “Please give me some of the gold coins you’re counting.”
  14. Mina said to Samira, “Put your tooth into à rat’s hole and a rat will give you one of its finest teeth.

Optative Sentence

  1. They said to us, “May you have a fine journey.”
  2. She said to him, “May you prosper in life.”
  3. They said, “May the wounded persons recover very soon.”
  4. We said to them, “May your team win the game.”
  5. I said to him, “May you get GPA-5 in the S.S.C.”
  6. You said to me, “May you have a long life.”
  7. The dervish said to me, “May you shine in life.”
  8. The woman said to his son, “May you be happy.”

Exclamatory Sentence

  1. Mayor said to the piper, “How funny you are!
  2. “What an unlucky man I am!” said the poor man.
  3. Neela said, “How impressive, the night market was.”
  4. He said, “How dirty my shirt is!”
  5. The poor man said, “Alas! I have lost everything I have.”
  6. The passer-by said, “Alas! My purse has been snatched.”
  7. Samira said, “What a poor cousin I have!”
  8. The players said, “Hurrah! we have won the game.”
  9. Miranda said, “What a wonderful creation man is!”
  10. He said, “What á fall!”
  11. “The girl said, “How strange the idea is!”
  12. Samira said, “What! the eggplants are stolen.”
  13. The farmer said, “Had I a few pieces of land.”

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