Narration Change Rules

মনে কর তোমার সহপাঠি আবিদ বলল তার কলমটি হারিয়ে গেছে। তুমি এ কথাটি ২ ভাবে বলতে পার। ১। Habib says, I have lost my pen. 

    ২। Habib says that he has lost his pen 

প্রথম sentence টিতে তুমি আবিদের কথা হুবুহু বলেছ। কিন্তু ২য় sentence টিতে তার কথাটি তোমার নিজের কথায় প্রকাশ করেছ। তাই Narration দুই প্রকার। 

  1. Direct Speech 
  1. Indirect Speech 

Direct speech থেকে indirect speech এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে প্রথমে tense ও person এর পরিবর্তন জানতে হবে। 

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Tense Change:

Direct Speech  Indirect Speech 
Present Simple: 

         She said, “its cold.” 

Past Simple: 

          She said that It was cold. 

Present continuous: 

         She said, “I’m teaching English.” 

Past continuous: 

          She said that she was teaching English. 

Present perfect: 

         She said, “I’ve been in school since 1999.” 

Past perfect: 

          She said that she had been in a school since 1999. 

Present perfect continuous: 

         She said, I’ve been teaching in a school for seven years.” 

Past perfect continuous: 

          She said that she had been teaching in school for seven years. 

Past simple: 

         She said, “I taught in many schools.” 

Past perfect: 

          She said that she had taught in many schools. 

Past continuous: 

         She said, “I was teaching earlier.” 

Past perfect continuous: 

          She said that she had been teaching earlier. 

Past perfect: 

         She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.” 

(No change) Past perfect: 

          She said that the lesson had already started when he arrived. 

Past perfect continuous: 

         She said, “I had already been teaching for five minutes.” 

(No change) Past perfect continuous: 

          She said that she had already been teaching for five minutes. 

Modal Auxiliaries এর পরিবর্তনঃ 

Can  Could 
May   Might 
Will  Would 
Shall  would 

NB:  

Could, would, should, might এবং ought to-এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : “I might go to the cinema.” he said  

Indirect : He said he might go to the cinema. 

Reporting speech- টি যদি কোনো universal truth হয় তাহলে reporting verb present/ past যা হোক না কেন reported speech- এর tense এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হবে না। যেমন 

Direct : The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.” 

Indirect : The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun. 

Direct : The teacher said to the students, “Honesty is the best policy.” 

Indirect : The teacher told the students that honesty is the best policy. 

চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বা দৃঢ় অনুমান বোঝানোর ক্ষেত্রে must, had to তে পরিবর্তিত হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : He said, “Every child must respect its parents.” 

Indirect : He said that every child must respect its parents. 

 

Time Change: 

Direct Speech  Indirect Speech 
Ago  Before 
Come   Go  
Here   There  
Hence   Thence  
Hither   Thither  
Now   Then  
Next (day/ month/week/year)  Following (day/ week/ month/year) 
Today   That day  
Thus   So/ In that way 
These (days)   Those(days)  
This (evening/ morning/noon)  That (evening/ morning/noon) 
This day   That day  
Tonight   That night 
Tomorrow   The next/ following day 
Last weekend   The weekend before last  

The previous weekend 

Last night  The previous night 
Last month/ year  The previous month/ year 

The month/ year before 

Yesterday (morning/ after noon/ evening)  The previous (morning/ after noon/ evening) 
Tomorrow (morning/ evening)  The following (morning/evening) 

NB: যদি reporting verbটি present/ future tense হয় তবে reported speech– এর tense এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। যেমন 

Direct : Mimi says, “I have done the sum.” 

Indirect : Mimi says that she has done the sum.” 

Direct : He says, “I am operating a computer.” 

Indirect : He says that he is operating a computer. 

Person Change:

Reported speech  1st (I ,WE)  Reporting verb এর subject কে follow করে। 
Reported speech  2nd (you, your)  Reporting verb এর object কে follow করে। 
Reported speech  3rd (He, She, It)  No change. 

Change of case: 

Nominative  Possessive   Objective 
I  My  Me 
We  Our  Us 
You  You  You 
He  His  Him 
She  her  Her 
They  their  Them 
  •  যখন বক্তা উল্লেখ থাকবে না তখন বক্তা ধরে নিয়ে indirect narration করতে হবে। 

Direct: “I shall go home soon.” 

Indirect: The speaker said to the person spoken to that he would go home soon. 

Statement/ Assertive Sentence 

  • Assertive sentence এর indirect narration এ change করতে নিচের নিয়ম গুলো follow করবে। এছারা আগের নিয়ম ঠিক থাকবে। 

Reporting verb say/said বা tell/told বসে। 

Inverted comma উঠে that বসে। 

Example:  

Direct: He says, “I am happy.” 

Indirect: He says that he was happy. 

Direct: I said to him, “I shall not go.” 

Indirect: I told him that I would not go. 

Question/ Interrogative Sentence Change

  • Indirect Narrationinterrogative Reported speech টি assertive sentence এ পরিনত করতে হবে। 
  • Sayবা tell বা say to এর পরিবর্তে ask, asked বসাতে হবে। 
  • Reported speechযদি(do, does, did, shall, will, am, is, are, was, were, can, may) দিয়ে আরম্ভ হলে inverted comma উঠে if বসে। 

Direct: Father said, “Are you reading now.” 

Indirect: Father asked if he was reading then. 

  • শুরুতেinterrogative pronoun (who, which, what, when, whom, where, whose, why, how দিয়ে আরম্ভ হলে inverted comma উঠে if হবেনা। ঐ pronoun টি অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। 

Direct: Karim said to me, where did you go yesterday. 

Indirect: Karim asked me where I had gone the previous day. 

 

Exercise:

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