Narration Change Rules

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মনে কর তোমার সহপাঠি আবিদ বলল তার কলমটি হারিয়ে গেছে। তুমি এ কথাটি ২ ভাবে বলতে পার। ১।Habib says,I have lost my pen.

২। Habib says that he has lost his pen

প্রথম sentence টিতে তুমি আবিদের কথা হুবুহু বলেছ। কিন্তু ২য় sentence টিতে তার কথাটি তোমার নিজের কথায় প্রকাশ করেছ। তাই Narration দুই প্রকার।

  1. Direct Speech
  1. Indirect Speech

Direct speechথেকেindirect speechএ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে প্রথমেtensepersonএর পরিবর্তন জানতে হবে।

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Tense Change:

Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
Present Simple:

She said, “its cold.”

Past Simple:

She said that It was cold.

Present continuous:

She said, “I’m teaching English.”

Past continuous:

She said that she was teaching English.

Present perfect:

She said, “I’ve been in school since 1999.”

Past perfect:

She said that she had been in a school since 1999.

Present perfect continuous:

She said, I’ve been teaching in a school for seven years.”

Past perfect continuous:

She said that she had been teaching in school for seven years.

Past simple:

She said, “I taught in many schools.”

Past perfect:

She said that she had taught in many schools.

Past continuous:

She said, “I was teaching earlier.”

Past perfect continuous:

She said that she had been teaching earlier.

Past perfect:

She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.”

(No change) Past perfect:

She said that the lesson had already started when he arrived.

Past perfect continuous:

She said, “I had already been teaching for five minutes.”

(No change) Past perfect continuous:

She said that she had already been teaching for five minutes.

Modal Auxiliariesএরপরিবর্তনঃ

CanCould
MayMight
WillWould
Shallwould

NB:

Could, would, should, mightএবংought to-এরকোনোপরিবর্তনহয়না।যেমন

Direct : “I might go to the cinema.” he said

Indirect : He said he might go to the cinema.

Reporting speech-টিযদিকোনোuniversal truthহয়তাহলেreporting verb present/ pastযাহোকনাকেনreported speech-এরtenseএর কোনো পরিবর্তন হবে না। যেমন

Direct : The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

Indirect : The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.

Direct : The teacher said to the students, “Honesty is the best policy.”

Indirect : The teacher told the students that honesty is the best policy.

চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বা দৃঢ় অনুমান বোঝানোর ক্ষেত্রেmust, had toতে পরিবর্তিত হয় না। যেমন

Direct : He said, “Every child must respect its parents.”

Indirect : He said that every child must respect its parents.

Time Change:

Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
AgoBefore
ComeGo
HereThere
HenceThence
HitherThither
NowThen
Next (day/ month/week/year)Following (day/ week/ month/year)
TodayThat day
ThusSo/ In that way
These (days)Those(days)
This (evening/ morning/noon)That (evening/ morning/noon)
This dayThat day
TonightThat night
TomorrowThe next/ following day
Last weekendThe weekend before last

The previous weekend

Last nightThe previous night
Last month/ yearThe previous month/ year

The month/ year before

Yesterday (morning/ after noon/ evening)The previous (morning/ after noon/ evening)
Tomorrow (morning/ evening)The following (morning/evening)

NB:যদিreporting verbটিpresent/ future tenseহয় তবেreported speechএরtenseএর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না।যেমন

Direct : Mimi says, “I have done the sum.”

Indirect : Mimi says that she has done the sum.”

Direct : He says, “I am operating a computer.”

Indirect : He says that he is operating a computer.

Person Change:

Reported speech1st(I ,WE)Reporting verbএরsubjectকেfollowকরে।
Reported speech2nd(you, your)Reporting verbএরobjectকেfollowকরে।
Reported speech3rd(He, She, It)No change.

Change of case:

NominativePossessiveObjective
IMyMe
WeOurUs
YouYouYou
HeHisHim
SheherHer
TheytheirThem
  • যখন বক্তা উল্লেখ থাকবে না তখন বক্তা ধরে নিয়েindirect narrationকরতে হবে।

Direct: “I shall go home soon.”

Indirect: The speaker said to the person spoken to that he would go home soon.

Statement/ Assertive Sentence

  • Assertive sentence এর indirect narration এ change করতে নিচের নিয়ম গুলো follow করবে। এছারা আগের নিয়ম ঠিক থাকবে।

Reporting verb say/saidবাtell/toldবসে।

Inverted commaউঠেthatবসে।

Example:

Direct: He says, “I am happy.”

Indirect: He says that he was happy.

Direct: I said to him, “I shall not go.”

Indirect: I told him that I would not go.

Question/ Interrogative Sentence Change

  • Indirect Narrationinterrogative Reported speechটিassertive sentenceএ পরিনত করতে হবে।
  • Sayবাtellবাsay toএর পরিবর্তেask, askedবসাতে হবে।
  • Reported speechযদি(do, does, did, shall, will, am, is, are, was, were, can, may)দিয়েআরম্ভ হলেinverted commaউঠেifবসে।

Direct: Father said, “Are you reading now.”

Indirect: Father asked if he was reading then.

  • শুরুতেinterrogative pronoun (who, which, what, when, whom, where, whose, why, howদিয়ে আরম্ভ হলেinverted commaউঠেifহবেনা। ঐpronounটি অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।

Direct: Karim said to me, where did you go yesterday.

Indirect: Karim asked me where I had gone the previous day.

Exercise:

Download Narration Note PDF

More Exercise:

Assertive Sentence

  1. The son said to his father, “I am not going to school because today I feel dizzy.
  2. I replied, “Yes, I have finished reading the book.”
  3. The Mayor said to the piper, “We cannot give you so much money.”
  4. The student said, “Yes, sir, I have completed my English lesson.”
  5. The man said to the manager, “I want to open a bank account in your bank.”
  6. The teacher said to the student, “You can’t learn your lessons well if you don’t attend the classes.”
  7. The boy said to the teacher, “I am sorry, sir, I’ll attend my classes regularly in future.”
  8. The boy said to the teacher, “Sir, I shall be much obliged if you kindly lend me the book you praised highly in the classroom yesterday.”
  9. The teacher said to Jamil, “You’re welcome to any of my books that you like.”
  10. The receptionist said. “It will be suitable for me.”
  11. I said to Rezia, “I’ve not seen her for a long time.”
  12. The old man said to the girl, “I have been starving for three days.”
  13. Rubi said, “Today is a suitable day for reading.”
  14. The aunt said, “Laila, you’re very tired after your long walk.”
  15. Mother said to Nipa, “I have not yet finished cooking. You have to wait for some time.”
  16. My father looked at me angrily and said to me, ‘You must go to school without any excuse?”
  17. He said, “I went to my friend’s house to borrow an essential book but he was not at home.”
  18. The girl said, “I don’t tell my mother’s name to anybody whom I don’t know.”
  19. Sharnim said to Suman, “I went to your house yesterday, but I did not find you.”
  20. My mother said to me, “Your progress in studies is very slow.”
  21. The woman said, “My children are hungry but there is no food in my house.”
  22. Kabir said to Prabir, “I expected you to attend my birthday ceremony yesterday but your absence hurt me much.”
  23. Mother said, “It is not durable and it will break down in a month.”

Interrogative Sentence

  1. The sons said to his father, “How will we find it?”
  2. Father said to his son, “Why are you making late?”
  3. “Will you return the book to me?” he said to me.
  4. “Have you killed the rats?” the Mayor said to the piper.
  5. “Rafin, have you done your English lesson today?” asked the teacher.
  6. The teacher said to Ratan, “Where is the problem?”, Rakib said to Raju, “How are you today?”
  7. The man said to the manager “Can you tell me the process of opening a bank account?
  8. My friend said to me, “Why are you sitting alone in your room at this hour?”
  9. The tourist said to the receptionist, “Have you any room vacant?”
  10. “Do you want a single or double room?” the receptionist said to the tourist.
  11. Father said to his son, “Don’t you think that honesty is the best policy?”
  12. Mrs. Amin said to Anwar; “Do you know what fables are?”
  13. He said to me, “What is the time by your watch?”

Imperative Sentence:

  1. “My sons, Listen to me,” the old man said.
  2. Father said to his son, “Go to school now.”
  3. The piper said to the Mayor, ‘”Give me the promised money.
  4. The teacher said to the student, “Let’s try to solve the problem.
  5. “Don’t worry for me,” The girl said to her mother.
  6. Sakila said to Shila, “Let’s go for a walk in the open field.”
  7. Father said to his son, “Learn to be honest from your boyhood.”
  8. The teacher said to the student, “Be attentive and listen to my lecture.”
  9. Shaila said to Neela, “Let’s finish reading the last part of this book.”
  10. The teacher said to the student, “Leave the room and do not return again today.”
  11. “Give me a few grains of com,” said the Grasshopper to the Ant.
  12. The headmaster said to the student, “Remember, punctuality is essential in every walk of life.”
  13. Bashir said to Ali; “Please give me some of the gold coins you’re counting.”
  14. Mina said to Samira, “Put your tooth into à rat’s hole and a rat will give you one of its finest teeth.

Optative Sentence

  1. They said to us, “May you have a fine journey.”
  2. She said to him, “May you prosper in life.”
  3. They said, “May the wounded persons recover very soon.”
  4. We said to them, “May your team win the game.”
  5. I said to him, “May you get GPA-5 in the S.S.C.”
  6. You said to me, “May you have a long life.”
  7. The dervish said to me, “May you shine in life.”
  8. The woman said to his son, “May you be happy.”

Exclamatory Sentence

  1. Mayor said to the piper, “How funny you are!
  2. “What an unlucky man I am!” said the poor man.
  3. Neela said, “How impressive, the night market was.”
  4. He said, “How dirty my shirt is!”
  5. The poor man said, “Alas! I have lost everything I have.”
  6. The passer-by said, “Alas! My purse has been snatched.”
  7. Samira said, “What a poor cousin I have!”
  8. The players said, “Hurrah! we have won the game.”
  9. Miranda said, “What a wonderful creation man is!”
  10. He said, “What á fall!”
  11. “The girl said, “How strange the idea is!”
  12. Samira said, “What! the eggplants are stolen.”
  13. The farmer said, “Had I a few pieces of land.”

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