Preposition

What is a preposition?

I bought a book for my son.

উপরের বাক্যটিতে My Son এর আগে For বসে এর সাথে book এর সম্পর্ক স্থাপন করেছে। এর থেকে বোঝা যায় Preposition হলো এমন সব শব্দ যা কোন Noun বা  pronoun আগে বসে তার সাথে বাক্যের অন্যান্য শব্দের সম্পর্ক প্রকাশ করে।

Definition: 

A preposition is a word placed before a noun-equivalent to show in what relation the person or thing thereby stands to something else. – J.C Nesfield

Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the Sun or pronoun stands in relation to something else. – Wren & Martin 

Kind of preposition:

Preposition কে বিভিন্ন ভাবে শ্রেনি বিভাগ করা যায়।

Simple preposition:

শুধু মাত্র একটি word বা শব্দ দ্বারা গঠিত preposition কে simple preposition বলে।

Example:

After, At, By, For, From, In, Of, Off, On, Out, Over, To, Up, With.

25 Most Common Prepositions

Double Preposition:

যখন দুটি Simple Preposition যুক্ত হয়ে একটি একক preposition – এর ন্যায় ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন তাকে double preposition বলে।

Example:

in + to = into,
up + to = upto
on + to = onto,
with + in = within
out + of = out of
with + out = without
up + on = upon,

 

Compound Preposition:

Noun বা Adjective বা Adverb -এর পূর্বে simple preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যে preposition গঠিত হয় তাকে Compound preposition বলে।

Example:

about = (on + by + out)
before = (by + fore)
between = (by + twin)
above = (on + by + up)
behind = (by + hind)
beyond = (by + yond)
across = (on + cross)
below = (by + low)
inside = (in + side)
along = (on + long)
beneath = (by + neath)
outside = (out + side)
around = (on + round)
beside = (by + side)
underneath = (under + neath)

 

Participle Preposition:

Present participle বা past participle যদি preposition – এর মত ব্যবহৃত হয় তবে তা participle preposition. Concerning, considering, judging, regarding, respecting ইত্যাদি participle preposition রুপে বসতে পারে।

Example:

Regarding (= about) this matter I know nothing.
The Padma flows past (=by) our village..
Considering (= for) his merit, he was given the job.

 

Phrase Preposition:

দুই বা ততােধিক word – এর মিলনে গঠিত phrase যদি একটিমাত্র preposition -এর ন্যায় ব্যবহৃত হয় তবে তা prepositional phrase বা phrasal preposition.

Example: 

By dint of: The boy stood first in the class by dint of his merit.
By means of: learn my bread by means of honest labour.
By the by: By the by he disclosed the secret.
By virtue of: He stood first in the class by virtue of hard labour.
For the sake of: I did it for the sake of friendship
For the purpose of: They went to the library for the purpose of collecting books.
In accordance with:  I acted in accordance with my father’s advice.
In addition to: I bought a pen in addition to a pencil.
In compliance with: I helped him in compliance with his father’s request.
In consequence of: He died in consequence of his hard labour.
In front of: The boy stood in front of me.
In keeping with: His words are not in keeping with what he does.
In lieu of: He took up history in lieu of geography

Disguised Preposition:

কখনও কখনও On, in ও of – এর পরিবর্তে a বা O বসে। এরুপ preposition কে Disguised preposition বা ছদ্মবেশী preposition বলে। জেমনঃ a hunting, ashore, ahead = a = on অর্থাৎ এখানে on পরিবর্তে a ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।

Example: Candy sells one piece a (a = of) taka.
He drove the cattle to a (a = on) field.
Now it is four o’ (=of) clock.
Rana goes there once a (a = in) week.
The king went a (a = on) hunting.

 

Detached Preposition:

Interrogative pronoun, Relative Pronoun, Interrogative adverbs এর সাথে সম্পর্কযুক্ত prepositions এদের আগে না বসে sentence এর শেষে বসে। তখন এ ধরনের prepositions কে Detached Preposition

Example:

I need a pen to write with.
This is the pen that I asked for.
What are you looking for?
What are you talking about?
What class do you read in?
What is Rajshahi famous for?
Where did you come from?
Whom does he want to speak to?

Quiz on Preposition:

  1. Quiz 01 : Start
  2. Quiz 02 : Start

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