Sentence and its classification

What is sentence?

ভাষা মানুষের অমূল্য সম্পদ। মানবজাতির মনের ভাব প্রকাশ করে থাকে এই ভাষার মাধ্যমে। বলতে গেলে এক বা একাধিক sentences বা বাক্য এর মাধ্যমে। তাই যেকোনো ভাষায় sentence এর গুরুত্ব অপরিসীম। কাজে sentence, English grammar এর একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বিষয়। সঠিকভাবে সাজানো মনের ভাব সম্পূর্ণভাবে ও সুষ্ঠু রূপে প্রকাশকারী শব্দসমূহকে sentence বলা হয়। বিভিন্ন Gramarian রা বাক্য বা sentence এর সংজ্ঞা বিভিন্ন ভাবে উপস্থাপন করেছেন। যেমন:

Definition of sentence:

  • NCTB Grammar Book Tells: a sentence is a group of words giving a complete sense of meaning.
  • According to to P. C Das: A word or a group of words having a clean meaning in a given context is called a sentence.
  • Wren and Martin: A group of words that makes a complete sense is called sentence.
  • Walter Marlow Ramsay: It is a form of wards in which something is said about.
  • According according to Collins English dictionary: A sentence is a sequence of words capable of standing alone alone to make an assertion, ask a question or give a command, usually consisting of a subject and a predicate containing a finite verb.
  • According according to Oxford dictionaries online: a sentence is a set of words that is complete itself typically containing a subject and predicate conveying a statement, question, exclamation or command and consists a main clause and sometimes one or more sub-ordinate clauses

Parts of sentences:

যে সকল sentence এ অনেকগুলো শব্দ বা word থাকে তাকে দুই অংশে ভাগ করা যায়। যেমন:
1. Subject: যার দ্বারা বাক্যে কাজটি সম্পন্ন করা হয় বা যার সম্বন্ধে কিছু বলা হয় তাকে Subject বলে। (The part which names the persons or things we are speaking about is called the subject of the sentence.)
2. Predicate: সাবজেক্ট সম্বন্ধে যা কিছু বলা হয় তাকে predicate বলে। (The bird which tell something about the subject is called predicate.)

Kinds of sentence:

According to the meaning, there are five types of sentence. They are:

  • Assertive sentence
  • Interrogative sentence
  • Imperative sentence
  • Optative sentence
  • Exclamatory sentence

Assertive Sentence:

A sentence that makes a general statement or assertion is called assertive sentence. Let’s see some examples.
1. Tina is good student.
2. She goes to school regularly.

Types of assertive sentence:

Assertive sentence can be classified into two types.
1. Affirmative sentence
2. Negative sentence.

Interrogative sentence:

Let’s see some examples:
1. What is the time by your watch.
2. When will you come to my house.
3. Is your father at home?
All these three sentences tells a question. So, an interrogative sentence tells a question.

Definition and structures of interrogative sentence:

যে sentence-এ কোনো ব্যক্তি বা বস্তু সম্পর্কে কোনো কিছু জানতে চাওয়া হয় সেই সকল sentence-কে interrogative sentence বলা হয়। A sentence that generally asks a question about any person or thing is called interrogative sentence.
1. Be verb + assertive sentence+ ?
2. Do / Does + assertive sentence+?
3. Did + assertive sentence + ?
4. Wh words + assertive sentence +?
More examples of interrogative sentence:
1. What is your name?
2. When do you reach at Dhaka?
3. Where do you live?
4. Do you like city life?
5. Have you taken your breakfast?

Imperative sentence:

যে সকল sentence-এ আদেশ উপদেশ নিষেধ নির্দেশ ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করে তাকে Imperative sentence বলে। A sentence that expresses order advice, request, instruction, permission, command is called imperative sentence.

Structures of imperative sentence

  • Main verb + extension
  • Don’t don’t + main verb + extension.
  • Please/ kindly + main verb + extension
  • Let us + verb + activation

Examples of imperative sentences:

  1. Please please give me a glass of water.
  2. Get up early in the morning to be healthy and wise.
  3. Shut the door.
  4. Stop stop talking in the class.
  5. Don’t run in the sun.

Optative sentence:

যে sentence দ্বারা ইচ্ছা প্রার্থনা বা আশীর্বাদ প্রকাশ পায় তাকে optative sentence বলে। A sentence which expresses a desire or prayer or wish is called optative sentence.

Example of optative sentence:

  • May may Allah bless you.
  • May you live long.
  • Long live Bangladesh.
  • May you prosper in life.
  • Long live our President.
  • May you come round soon.

Exclamatory sentence:

Observe the following sentences:

  • How beautiful scenery it is!
  • Hurray! We have won the game.
  • Alas! I am undone.
  • How funny you are!
  • How terrible the cyclone is!

উপরের সবগুলো বাক্যের মাধ্যমে মনের আকস্মিকভাবে আবেগ প্রকাশ পায়। কাজেই এগুলো সব Exclamatory sentence. যে সকল sentence দ্বারা দুঃখ, আনন্দ, বিস্ময়, আবেগ প্রকাশ করা হয় তাকে Exclamatory sentence বলে।