Tense and Its Classification in English Grammar with Examples pdf

What is Tense?

Observe the following sentences:

  • Nehal plays football.
  • He played football yesterday.
  • He will play tomorrow.

The verb “play” has been used in three forms in the given three sentences i.e. plays, played and will play expressing present, past and future time. So, the time of action is called tense. Tense denotes the time of a verb. Tense is the form of verb that is used to indicate the time of action done.

Types of Tenses:

There are three types of tense.

  • Present Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Future Tense.

Again, each of them will be divided into four types:

Present Tense

Present Indefinite:

Structure: Subject + V1 (Main verb) + Extension.
Example:

  • He plays cricket.
  • I read newspaper.

Interrogative form: Does he play cricket?
Negative form: He does not play cricket.
Negative interrogative: Doesn’t he play cricket?

Present Continuous Tense:

Structure: Subject + am/is/are + V1 + ing + Extension.
Example:

  • He is playing cricket.
  • I am reading book.

Interrogative form: Is he playing cricket?
Negative form: He is not playing cricket.
Negative interrogative: Isn’t he playing cricket?

Present Perfect Tense:

Present Perfect Tense shows the action of present time that a work has been started but the result is still continuous.
Structure: Subject + has/ have + Past participle form of verb + Extension.
Example:

  • He has completed the work.
  • I have worked at Milestone.

Interrogative form: Has he completed the work?
Negative form: He hasn’t completed the work.
Negative interrogative: Hasn’t he completed the work?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

It carries the continuous form of verb. Here we have to remember about time of action or period of action.
Structure: Subject + have/has + been + V1 + ing + extension.
Example:

  • He has been playing cricket for 1 hour.

Interrogative form: Has he been playing cricket for 1 hour?
Negative form: He hasn’t been playing cricket for 1 hour.
Negative interrogative: Hasn’t he been playing cricket for 1 hour.

Past Tense

Past Tense refers the actions of past time. It is the simple definition by which we can understand it easily. There are four types of past tense.

  • Past Indefinite Tense
  • Past Continuous Tense
  • Past Perfect Tense
  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Past Indefinite Tense:

It shows the action of Past time. We can understand it by the structure and example. We have to understand it properly.
Structure: Subject + V2 (past form) + Extension.
Example:

  • He played cricket.
  • I read newspaper.

Interrogative form: Did he play cricket?
Negative form: He didn’t play cricket.
Negative interrogative: Didn’t he play cricket?

Look at the first sentence, here ‘He’ is the subject, Played is the past form of play and cricket is the object of the sentence.

Past Continuous Tense:

It shows the continuous work of past time or running actions of past time. We will be able to understand it easily by its structure and example.
Structure: Subject + was/were + V1 + ing + Extension.
Example:

  • He was playing cricket.
  • I was reading book.

Interrogative form: Was he playing cricket?
Negative form: He wasn’t playing cricket.
Negative interrogative: Wasn’t he playing cricket?

Past Perfect Tense

Structure:
Subject + had + Past participle form of verb + Extension.
Example: He had completed the work.

Interrogative form: Had he completed the work?
Negative form: He hadn’t completed the work.
Negative interrogative: Hadn’t he completed the work?

Future Tense

Future Tense refers the actions of Future time. It is the simple definition by which we can understand it easily. There are four types of Future tense.

  • Future Indefinite Tense
  • Future Continuous Tense
  • Future Perfect Tense
  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Future Indefinite Tense:

It shows the action of Future time. We can understand it by the structure and example. We have to understand it properly.
Structure: Subject +Shall/Will+ V1(Base form) + Extension.
Example:

  • He will play cricket.
  • I shall read newspaper.

Look at the first sentence, here ‘He’ is the subject, Play is the base form of play and cricket is the object of the sentence.

Interrogative form: Will he playing cricket?
Negative form: He won’t playing cricket.
Negative interrogative: Won’t he playing cricket?

Future Continuous Tense:

It shows the continuous work of future time or running actions of future time. We will be able to understand it easily by its structure and example.
Future Continuous Tense:
Structure: Subject + Shall/Will + Be+ (V1 + ing )+ Extension.
Example:

  • He will be playing cricket.
  • I shall be reading book

Interrogative form: Will he be playing cricket?
Negative form: He won’t be playing cricket.
Negative interrogative: Won’t he be playing cricket?

Future Perfect Tense

Structure:
Subject + Shall/Will+ Have + Past participle form of verb
+ Extension.
Example:

  • He will have completed the work.

Interrogative form: Will he have completed the work?
Negative form: He won’t have completed the work.
Negative interrogative: Won’t he have completed the work?

Exercise:

Change the following sentences as directed in the bracket. 
1. Kamal is doing math. (Present Perfect Continuous)
2. Nira has done the work. (Present Indefinite)
3. Teacher is teaching us. (Present Perfect Continuous)
4. We have been drawing a picture for two hours. (Present
Continuous)
5. She helps her sister. (Present Perfect Tense

Rewrite the following passage in the past tense:

Nasiruddin is a pious and learned man. He spends his time in studies and religious activities Although he is an emperor of Delhi, he leads his life like an ordinary man. He copies the holy Quran and sells it in the market. He maintains his family with the money he earns thereby.

Get Answer
Nasiruddin was a pious and learned man.He spent his time in studies and religious activities. Although he was an emperor of Delhi , he led his life like an ordinary man. He copied the holy Qur’an and sold it in the market. He maintained his family with the money he earned thereby.

Rewrite the following passage in the present tense:

Luna and Rina are walking along with Rina’s mother. Rina’s mother is a housewife. They are going to Luna’s house. Luna’s mother is a school teacher. She teaches the student well.

Get Answer
Luna and Rina walk along with Rina’s mother.Rina’s mother is a housewife.They go to Luna’s house.Luna’s mother is school teacher.She teaches the student well.

Re-write the following passage in the future tense:

The annual cultural week of our school was held on the 3 march. We decorated the school campus very nicely. The chief guest arrived at 10:00 am. He was received cordially. The function started at 10.30 am.

Get Answer
The annual cultural week of our school will be held on the 3rd March.We will decorate the school very nicely. The chief guest will arrive at 10:00 am. He will be received cordially. The function will start at 10:30 am

Rewrite the following passage in the present tense:

My younger brother Sujoy became a teacher. He went back to our village. He started a night school there. He taught the poor and illiterate farmers. The villagers became very happy.

Get Answer
My brother Sujoy become a teacher.He go back to our village. He start a night school there. He teach the poor and illiterate farmers.THE villagers become very happy

Rewrite the following passage in the Future tense:

It is a nice warm evening in March. Anwar is reading a book in his bedroom at home, when his mother calls him. When Anwar goes down-stairs, he finds his mother with some visitors in the living room. Anwar’s mother tells him to look after them for few moments and leaves the room. Anwar feels embarrassed and shy.

Rewrite the following passage in the present tense:

My father was a farmer. I helped him in his work. My mother also helped him at home. She also helped us to prepare our lesson in the evening. Our grandfather was an old man but he told us many interesting story.

Rewrite the following passage in the present tense:

There was no one else in the world like my mother. She would love me very dearly. She did never think of her own happiness. Her joy knew no bounds when she would find me happy. Mother would become very anxious when I was ill.

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