Voice Change Rules in Bangla

সাধারণ অর্থে Voice অর্থ কণ্ঠস্বর। কিন্তু ব্যাকরণে একে বলা হয় বাচ্য। Verb-এর যে Form দ্বারা কর্তা যখন কাজটি নিজে করে বা অন্যের মাধ্যমে সম্পাদন করিয়ে নেয় এবং কর্তার সঙ্গে কাজের সম্পর্ক দেখায় এবং এইভাবে Verb-এর রূপের যে পরিবর্তন ঘটে তাকে Voice বলে।যেমন:  a. He has made a basket. b. A basket has been made by him.
ওপরের প্রথম বাক্যে কর্তা নিজে কাজ করেছে এবং দ্বিতীয় বাক্যে কর্তার ওপর কাজ করানো হয়েছে।

আমরা লক্ষ্য করলে দেখতে পাই যে—
(i) Verb এর object (receiver)-টি Subject হিসেবে প্রথমে বসেছে।
(ii) সাহায্যকারী verb-টি বসেছে।
(iii) অতিরিক্ত একটি be verb বসেছে।
(iv) verb এর 3rd Form ব্যবহূত হয়েছে।
(v) extension বসেছে।
(vi) by যোগে verb এর subject-টি object হয়েছে।

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Kinds of Voice

Voice সাধারণত দুই প্রকার। যথা—

  1.  Active voice (সক্রিয় বাচ্য) এবং
  2.  Passive voice (নিষ্ক্রিয় বাচ্য)।

Active voice: কর্তা নিজেই কাজ করে অর্থাৎ কর্তা সক্রিয় এরূপ বোঝালে verb-এর Active voice হয়
যেমন: They are playing cricket.

Passive voice: Verb-এর যে form দ্বারা কর্তা নিজে কাজ সম্পাদন করে না, বরং কাজটি অন্যের দ্বারা করানো হয় এরূপ বোঝায় তাকে Passive voice বলা হয়
যেমন: Cricket is played by them.

Basic Rules for Changing Voice

Voice change-এর ক্ষেত্রে মৌলিক যে নিয়ম অনুসরণ করা হয় তা নিচে উল্লেখ করা হলো:

(i)তাহলে এবার Object হবে Subject।
(ii) তারপর বসবে To be verb/Auxiliary verb +
(iii) এবং মূল verb-এর Past participle বসবে।
(iv) Subject-টি Object-রূপে by-এর পরে বসবে।

(a) কোনো কোনো ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এ দুটি Object-এর মধ্যে যেকোনো একটির পূর্বে Preposition থাকে। এ ধরনের বাক্যে যে Object-টির পূর্বে Preposition থাকে সেই Object-টি Passive voice -এর Subject হিসেবে ব্যবহূত হয় না। সঙ্গের দ্বিতীয় Object-টি Passive voice-এর Subject হিসেবে বসে।
Active : She did for me the necessary things.
Passive : The necessary things were done for me by her.

(b) আবার কোনো কোনো সময় Active voice-এর দুটি Object থাকে। সে ক্ষেত্রে উক্ত Active Voice-কে Passive voice করার সময় প্রথম Object-টি অর্থাৎ ব্যক্তিবাচক Object-টিকে Subject করাই উত্তম।
Active : The Headmaster teaches us English.
Passive : We are taught English by the headmaster.
Or, English is taught us by the headmaster.
উল্লিখিত বাক্যটিতে লক্ষ করলে দেখা যায়, Active voice-টিতে teaches মূল verb-টির পরে দুটি Object যথাক্রমে us ও English আছে। এর মধ্যে us ব্যক্তিবাচক Object হওয়ায় তাকে Passive voice-এর Subject হিসেবে বসানো হয়েছে।

Tense বুঝে auxiliary verb এর ব্যবহার করা খুবই important. নিচের ছকটি ভালোভাবে লক্ষ করো, তাহলে বুঝতে পারবে কখন কীভাবে কী ধরনের পরিবর্তন হয়:

Present

Tense Auxiliary verb
Indefinite Am, is, are
Continuous Am being, is being, are being
Perfect Have been, has been
Perfect continuous Have been being, has been being

Past

Tense Auxiliary verb
Indefinite Was, were
Continuous Was being, were being
Perfect Had been
Perfect continuous Had been being

Future

Tense Auxiliary verb
Indefinite Shall be, will be
Continuous Shall be being, will be being
Perfect Shall have been, will have been
Perfect continuous Shall have been being, will have been being

আরও কিছু নিয়ম মেনে চলতে হবে যেমন: Defective verb বা Modal auxiliary রয়েছে এরকম বাক্যকে Passive voice করার সময় নিচের নিয়মটি প্রযোজ্য হবে।

Active এ যে modal টি থাকবে+be । যেমন: Can + be=can be, should + be= should be

1.Present Indefinite Tense: Present Indefinite Tense-কে passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) am/is/are মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)

Active: I write a letter.
Active: They play football.
Passive: A letter is written by me.
Passive: Football is played by them.
Active: Sony sings a song.
Passive: A song is sung by Sony
Active: The horse carries goods.
Passive: Goods are carried by the horse.

2. Present Continuous: Present continuous tense-কে passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) am being/is being/are being+মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : I am writing a letter.
Active: They are drawing many pictures.
Passive: A letter is being written by me.
Passive: Many pictures are being drawn by them.
Active: Sony is singing a song.
Active: The horse is caring goods.
Passive: A song is being sung by Sony.
Passive: Goods are being carried by the horse.

3. Present Perfect: Present Perfect Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) have been/has been মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : I have written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by me.
Active: Sony has sung a song.
Passive: A song has been sung by Sony.
Active: They have played football.
Passive: Football has been played by them.
Active: We have won the match.
Passive: The match have been won by us.

4. Past Indefinite Tense: Past Indefinite Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) was/were মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : Jony killed a tiger.
Passive: A tiger was killed by Jony.
Active: You did the job very nicely.
Passive: The job was done by you very nicely.

5. Past Continuous: Past Continuous Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) was being/were being মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : Raju was writing a letter..
Passive: A letter was being written by Raju.
Active: You were doing the job very nicely.
Passive: The job was being done by you very nicely.
Active: I was helping my friend.
Passive: My friend was being helped by me.

6. Past Perfect: Past Perfect Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) had been মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : Raju had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Raju.
Active: You had finished the work very nicely.
Passive: The work had been finished by you very nicely.
Active: I had drunk a glass of water.
Passive: A glass of water had been drunk by me.

7. Future Indefinite Tense: Future Indefinite Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) shall be/will be মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : Raju will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Raju.
Active: You will do the job very nicely.
Passive: The job will be done by you very nicely.
Active: I shall help my friend.
Passive: My friend will be helped by me.

8. Future Continuous: Past Continuous Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) shall be being/will be being মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active : Raju will be writing a letter..
Passive: A letter will be being written by Raju.
Active: You will be doing the job very nicely.
Passive: The job will be being done by you very nicely.
Active: I shall be helping my friend.
Passive: My friend will be being helped by me.

9. Future Perfect: Future Perfect Tense-কে Passive voice করতে হলে এই সূত্রটি অনুসরণ করতে হবে:
Subject (Object থেকে আগত) shall have been/will have been+মূল verb-এর Past participle by Object (Subject থেকে আগত)
Active: They will have given me a book.
Passive: A book will have been given me by them.
Active: Rana will have finished the work.
Passive: The work will have been finished by Rana.
Active: Mitu will have written it.
Passive: It will have been written by Mitu.
(বিশেষ দ্রষ্টব্য: Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense ও Future Perfect Continuous Tense-এর Passive voice হয় না।)

10. Interrogative Sentence: উক্ত Sentence-এ যখন do, does বা did দ্বারা প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসা করা হয় তখন Subject-এর number, person ও tense অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত Subject-এর পূর্বে ‘to be verb’ বসিয়ে Passive voice করতে হয় যেমন—
Active: Do you like the book?
Passive: Is the book liked by you?
Active: Does he like the cake?
Passive: Is the cake liked by him?
Active: Did he beat the dog?
Passive: Was the dog beaten by him?
Active: Did he laugh at the poor?
Passive: Were the poor laughed at by him?
Interrogative বাক্যে ব্যবহূত বিভিন্ন Tense-এর সাহায্যকারী ক্রিয়া দ্বারা বাক্য শুরু হলে Passive voice করার সময় Tense অনুযায়ী সাহায্যকারী verb পরিবর্তিত Subject-এর পূর্বে ব্যবহার করতে হয় এবং Voice change-এর অন্যান্য নিয়ম পূর্বের মতোই থেকে যায়
Active: Has he done it?
Passive: Has it been done by him?
Active: Had he finished the work?
Passive: Had the work been finished by him?
Active: Was he making a doll?
Passive: Was a doll being made by him?

Who দ্বারা Active voice শুরু হলে একে Passive voice করার সময় বাক্যের প্রথমে by whom ব্যবহার করতে হয় যেমন—n
Active: Who spoke it?
Passive: By whom was it spoken?
Active: Who does?
Passive: By whom is it done?
Active: Who has broken the pencil?
Passive: By whom has the pencil been broken?
Active: Who is doing it?
Passive: By whom is it being done?

What দ্বারা কোনো প্রশ্নবোধক Active বাক্য আরম্ভ হলে Passive voice করার সময় what ঠিক what থাকে যেমন—n
Active: What does Prapti seek?
Passive: What is sought by Prapti?
Active: What did you do?
Passive: What was done by you?

Whom দ্বারা কোনো প্রশ্নবোধক Active voice শুরু হলে তাকে Passive voice করার সময় who বাক্যের প্রথমে ব্যবহার করতে হয় যেমন—n
Active: Whom do you want?
Passive: Who is wanted by you?
Active: Whom does he seek?
Passive: Who is sought by him?

Why, When, Where, How ইত্যাদি দ্বারা Interrogative active বাক্য শুরু হলে Passive voice করার সময় উক্ত Interrogative adverb-গুলোই বাক্যের প্রথমে থেকে যায়। Voice change-এর অন্যান্য নিয়ম অবশ্যই পালনীয় যেমন—
Active: Why does he disclose the fact?
Passive: Why is the fact disclosed by him?
Active: Why do they take the pen?
Passive: Why is the pen taken by them?
Active: When will Abid write it?
Passive: When will it be written by Abid?
Active: When will they make the kite?
Passive: When will the kite be made by them?
Active: Where did Soya find you?
Passive: Where were you found by Soya?
Active: Where have you taken him?
Passive: Where has be been taken by you?
Active: How have you done this?
Passive: How has this been done by you?
Active: How does he finish the work?
Passive: How is the work finished by him?

Imperative Sentence: যে Sentence দ্বারা আদেশ, উপদেশ ও অনুরোধ বোঝায়, তাকে Imperative Sentence বলেউক্ত Sentence-এর Active voice-এর object-কে let-এর Object-রূপে ব্যবহার করতে হবেমূল Verb-এর Past participle হয় এবং তার পূর্বে be ব্যবহার করতে হয় যেমন—
Active : Do it.
Passive: Let it be done (by you).
Active: Make a Kite.
Passive: Let a Kite be made (by you).
Active: Help the poor.
Passive: Let the poor be helped (by you).
Active: Take care of your health.
Passive: Let your health be taken care of.

Imperative Sentence: Imperative Sentence-এর Active voice যখন let দ্বারা দেওয়া থাকে তখন Passive voice করার সময় নতুন করে আর let ব্যবহার করার দরকার হয় নাউক্ত let-কেই উক্ত বাক্যের শুরুতে বসিয়ে Indirect object-টিকে sub করে Passive করতে হয়
যেমন—
Active: Let Rizvi read the book.
Passive: Let the book be read by Rizvi.
Active: Let me sing a song.
Passive: Let a song be sung by me.
Active: Let him do the sum.
Passive: Let the sum be done by him.
দ্রষ্টব্য: Let-এর পরে Second person বসে না।
Imperative Sentenceএর Active voice-এর প্রথমে বা শেষে যদি adverb থাকে তবে Passive করার সময় তাকে বাক্যের শেষে রেখে দিতে হয় যেমন—
Active : Help him now.
Passive: Let him be helped now.
Active: Always speak the truth.
Passive: Let the truth be spoken always.
Active: Shut the door immediately.
Passive: Let the door be shut immediately.
Active: Today cut the tree.
Passive: Let the tree be cut today (by you).
Imperative Sentenceযদি Negative হয় তবে Passive voice করার সময় বাক্যের প্রথমে let not ব্যবহার করতে হয়অন্যান্য নিয়ম পূর্বের মতোই থেকে যায়
Active: Do not break the temple.
Passive: Let not the temple be broken (by you).
Active: Don’t post the letter.
Passive: Let not the letter be posted (by you).
Active: Don’t open the door.
Passive: Let not the door be opened (by you).

Complex Sentence:
Complex Sentence-কে Passive voice করতে হলে Principal clause ও Sub-ordinate clause উভয়ের Passive করতে হয়। Principal clause-এর সাধারণত Object থাকে নাতাই উক্ত অংশের Object হিসেবে it নিতে হয় যেমন—
Active: I know that you helped him.
Passive: It is known to me that he was helped by you.
Active: I thought that Babul had sung a song.
Passive: It was thought by me that a song had been sung by Babul.

জেনে রাখো: Complex Sentence-এর Sub-ordinate clause-এর যদি Object না থাকে তবে উক্ত অংশের Passive voice করার দরকার হয় নাএ ধরনের Sentence-এর বেলায় Principal clause-এর subject হিসেবে It নিয়েও Passive voice করা যায়তা ছাড়া sub-ordinate clause-এর that-সহ পরের সবটুকুকে Passive করার সময় বাক্যের Subject করে Passive করা যায় যেমন—
Active : I know that the he is a good boy
Passive : It is known to me that he is a good boy.
Or: That he is a good boy is known to me.

জেনে রাখো: And দ্বারা দুটি বাক্য যুক্ত হলে যদি and-এর উভয় অংশে Object থাকে তবে উভয়ই নিয়ম অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তন হবেআর and-এর পরবর্তী অংশে কোনো Object না থাকলে প্রথম অংশ বা পূর্ববর্তী অংশ পরিবর্তিত হয়যেমন—
Active : He ate rice and went to school.
Passive: Rice was eaten by him and (he) went to school.
Active: He ate rice and gave me a pen.
Passive: Rice was eaten and I was given a pen by him.
অনেক সময় Infinitive দ্বারাও Voice change করা যায়। যেমন—I don’t like to be hated.
A bank is going to be opened by the manager.

লক্ষণীয়: কতগুলো Verb-এর পরে by preposition না বসে with, at, to ইত্যাদি বসে যেমন—
Gratify = gratify with,
please = pleased with,
satisfy = satisfied with,
bless = blessed with,
glad = glad at,
know = known to,
surprise = surprised at,
fill = filled with ইত্যাদি।
Known verb-এর পরে to ও by উভয়ই বসে। যেমন—
He is known to me.
A tree is known by its fruits.

জেনে রাখো: অনেক সময় আত্মপরিচয় দিতে হলে বা কোনো কাজের মাধ্যমে পরিচয় দিতে হলে known-এর পরে by বসেএকে অন্যের সঙ্গে পরিচয় অর্থে Known-এর পরে to বসে যেমন—
Active : The boy pleased us all.
Passive: We all were pleased by the boy হবে না।
এক্ষেত্রে হবে-
Passive: We all were pleased with the boy.
Active: Your work satisfied me.
Passive: I was satisfied with your work.
Active: His conduct annoyed me.
Passive: I was annoyed at his conduct.
Active: The book contains useful information.
Passive: Useful information is contained in the book.

জেনে রাখো: অনেক সময় দেখা যায় Passive voice-এর Doer বা Agent থাকে নাধরনের বাক্যের Voice পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Someone, People, We, The Boy, He ইত্যাদিকে Subject হিসেবে ব্যবহার করতে হয়তবে কোনো কাজ যখন এক ব্যক্তি দ্বারা করা সম্ভব তখন Singular subject নিতে হয়আর যখন কোনো কাজ একার পক্ষে সাধারণত করা সম্ভব নয় তখন Plural subject নিতে হয় যেমন—
Passive : My pen was stolen.
Active: Someone stole my pen.
Passive: He is not known here.
Active: None/nobody knows him here.
Passive: He is called a liar.
Active: People/They call him a liar.

জেনে রাখো: Voice Change করার ক্ষেত্রেনিম্নলিখিত Verb-গুলোর Passive voice হয় নাকারণ এরা Intransitive verb : die, appear, seem, disappear, happen, belong, despair, allude, occur, ensure, wonder, comprise, perish, refer, issue, and indulge ইত্যাদি
Incorrect : It was appeared.
Correct: It appeared.
Incorrect: It is happened.
Correct: It happened.
Incorrect: This book is belonged to me.
Correct: This book belongs to me.

Voice Change Exercise:

Put the verb into the correct form. (active or passive)

  1. While he was on holiday, his camera (disappear) from his hotel room.
    Passive
    While he was on holiday, his camera had been disappeared from his hotel room.
  2. The ship (sink) quickly, but luckily everyone (rescue).
    Passive
    The ship sunk quickly, but luckily everyone had been rescued.
  3. The gate of the park (lock) at 7.30 pm every evening. 
    Passive
    The gate of the park is locked at 7.30 pm every evening.
  4. The parcel (post) three days ago and it (arrive) yesterday.
    Passive
    The parcel was posted three days ago and it arrived yesterday.
  5. I saw an accident yesterday. Somebody (call) an ambulance but nobody (injure). 
    Passive
    I saw an accident yesterday. Somebody called an ambulance but nobody was injured.